Hivos International

Publication on women's rights in Syria

When we look at the group of protesters that sparked the revolutionary upheaval in the MENA region, we learn that many of them were women. Their participation in the squares, in online fora and behind the war front is impressive. However, their role in the outcome of these political transitions does not reflect their involvement and contribution in any way. How did this happen, and what to do now?

Kawa Hassan and Rula Asad assess the position of women in the so-called Arab Spring, with a special focus on Syria. Their article is published in Idee, the magazine of the Mr. Hans van Mierlo Stichting, the scientific bureau of Dutch political party D66. This special edition is devoted to civic activism in the Arab world.

Kawa Hassan is Knowledge Officer at the Knowledge Programme Civil Society in West Asia. Rula Asad is an independent Syrian journalist and women's rights activist.

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لا يمكن معرفة أسباب الثورة التي اندلعت في الخامس عشر من آذار/ مارس  2011 دون قراءة خصائص البنية السياسية والاقتصادية والاجتماعية لسوريا منذ  بداية تشكل سوريا بشكلها الحديث في ظل الانتداب الفرنسي وحتى الآن.

وكون  العامل الاقتصادي يلعب الدور الأبرز في طبيعة العاملين السياسي والاجتماعي  فإن دراسته تغدو واجباً لفهم أعمق للمسألة السورية الآن، بدءاً من  الانتداب الفرنسي الذي قطع الدورة الطبيعية للاقتصاد السوري المتشكل عبر  قرون طويلة بفعل سايكس بيكو التي فصلت المدن (حلب ودمشق...) عن مجالها  الاقتصادي والتجاري (بيروت، حيفا، الموصل، اسكندورن)، لتبدأ سوريا في تكوين  اقتصاد جديد ضمن دائرتها السياسية الجديدة، بحيث تشكلت أول دورة اقتصادية  جديدة في عام 1952 في ظل اقتصاد حرّ لم يلبث أن ينتهي تحت وطأة الوحدة مع  مصر 1958 لتبدأ سوريا طريقاً متعرجاً نحو الاشتراكية والتأميم والإصلاح  الزراعي لن يأخذ شكله الجذري إلا مع وصول البعث إلى السلطة عام 1963  وليكتمل عام 1970 بوصول حافظ الأسد، لنكون أمام محاولة تكوين بنية اقتصادية  سورية تنوس بين الاشتراكية والتحرير الاقتصادي الجزئي المترافق مع سلطوية  سياسية ستتجذر يوماً بعد يوم لتتحول إلى استبداد عضوض يجعل من الاقتصاد  مجرد أداة في يد السلطة لتعيش سوريا أزمة اقتصادية مزمنة منذ ثمانيات القرن  الماضي، إذ تمّت معالجتها بالمسكّنات وفق سياسة الإطفائي إلى أن انفجر  المرجل في آذار/ مارس 2011.

مع انهيار منظومة “الدولة المركزية” في سوريا، كأولى وأهم نتائج
مجريات “الثورة” المندلعة في البلاد منذ قرابة الثلاث سنوات.
منظومة الدولة المركزية في الحالة السورية، كانت تعني بجوهرها
قدرة وسلطة الدولة وأجهزتها على السيطرة التامة على كافة أشكال
الحراك المجتمعي. مع انهيار تلك المنظومة الأمنية، فأن جل
الجماعات الأهلية السورية، بدأت تسعى لترتيب صيغها الخاص
للحماية الذاتية، ومنهم الأكراد السوريون .